Birth of NASA's Moon Rocket

 

 

 

 

Saturn V 1 

Credit: NASA 

 

Saturn V 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn II stage 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

J-2 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Launch vehicles 

Launch vehicles of the world as known in 1980 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

N1 and Saturn V 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn V 

Credit: NASA 

 

Saturn V LV 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn V 2 

Credit: NASA 

 

Saturn V No. b 

Credit: NASA 

 

Saturn V No. d 

Credit: NASA 

 

Saturn V Title 

 

Saturn A-1 to C-5 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn C-4B 2 Stage 

Saturn C-4B 2 Stage version Nov 1961 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn C-4B final 

Saturn C-4B final configuration Nov 1961 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn 5 final 

Saturn 5 final configuration Nov 1961 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn 5 nuclear 

Saturn 5 nuclear configuration Nov 1961 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn MLV 1.37 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn 2-120-4 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn 2-120-5 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn MLV 2-120-7 

Credit: © Mark Wade 

 

Saturn 2 w MM SO 

Credit: © Mark Wade American orbital launch vehicle. America's booster for the Apollo manned lunar landing. The design was frozen before a landing mode was selected; the Saturn V could be used for either Earth-Orbit-Rendezvous or Lunar-Orbit-Rendezvous methods. The vehicle ended up with the same payload capability as the 'too large' Nova. The basic diameter was dictated by the ceiling height at the Michoud factory selected for first stage manufacture.

The Saturn launch vehicle was the penultimate expression of the Peenemuende Rocket Team's designs for manned exploration of the moon and Mars. The designs were continuously developed and improved, starting from the World War II A11 and A12 satellite and manned shuttle launcher, through the designs made public in the Collier's Magazine series of the early 1950's, until the shock of the first Sputnik launch brought sudden real interest from the U.S. government. On December 30 1957 Von Braun produced a 'Proposal for a National Integrated Missile and Space Vehicle Development Plan'. This had the first mention of a 1,500,000 lbf booster (Juno V, later Saturn I). By July of the following year Huntsville had in hand the contract from ARPA to proceed with design of the Juno V.

 

Following transfer of the Peenemuende Rocket Team from the US Army to NASA, a year after the first plan was mooted, Von Braun briefed NASA on plans for booster development at Huntsville with objective of manned lunar landing. It was initally proposed that 15 Juno V (Saturn I) boosters assemble a 200,000 kg payload in earth orbit for direct landing on moon. NASA produced two months later, on February 15, 1959, its plan for development in the next decade of Vega (later cancelled after NASA discovered the USAF was secretly developing the similar Hustler (Agena) upper stage), Centaur, Saturn, and Nova launch vehicles (Juno V renamed Saturn I at this point). Throughout the initial planning, Presidential decision, and landing mode debate for the Apollo lunar landing goal, a variety of Saturn and Nova configurations were considered. Of these, only the C-1 and C-5 were taken through to further development.

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